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2 edition of Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium found in the catalog.

Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium

Emily L. Lilly

Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium

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  • 19 Currently reading

Published by Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Cambridge, Mass, Woods Hole, Mass .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Alexandrium -- Phylogeny.,
  • Alexandrium -- Geographical distribution.,
  • Dinoflagellates -- Classification.,
  • Toxic marine algae.,
  • Paralytic shellfish poisoning.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Emily L. Lilly.
    GenreClassification.
    SeriesMIT/WHOI -- 2003-17., MIT/WHOI (Series) -- 2003-17.
    ContributionsJoint Program in Oceanography/Applied Ocean Science and Engineering., Massachusetts Institute of Technology., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination226 p. :
    Number of Pages226
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL16100021M

    Alexandrium minutum is a toxic single-celled armoured dinoflagellate that is well characterised morphologically in Balech, Cells are spherical in shape and small-sized, 15 to 29 um in diameter. The cell is green-brown in colour with a theca (clear protective covering). Blooms of toxic dinoflagellates within the genus Alexandrium are among the most widespread and dangerous harmful algal blooms (HABs) globally, and cause significant ecological, economic and public health impacts to temperate and subarctic coastal areas worldwide (Anderson et al. ).Toxic species within the genus produce saxitoxins, a class of neurotoxins that Cited by: Cyclin B and its cell cycle-dependent differential expression in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense Atama Group I/Clade I. Harmful Algae Bergman, B., Sandh, G., Lin, S., Larsson, J. and Carpenter, E. J. Tichodesmium – a widespread marine cyanobacterium with unusual nitrogen fixation properties. FEMS : Senjie Lin.


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Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium by Emily L. Lilly Download PDF EPUB FB2

Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium The incidence and known distribution of paralytic shellfish poison-producing Alexandrium dinoflagellates have both increased dramatically in recent decades.

This thesis explores the phylogeny, taxonomy, and biogeography of Alexandrium in light of this expansion. The reconstructed biogeography of the tamarensis and minutum complexes indicate that both natural dispersal and human-assisted transportation of Alexandrium have caused the geographic spread.

Human-assisted transport of toxic A. catenella-type cells from Asia to the Thau Lagoon, France, was demonstrated in chapter by: The presence of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella was first recorded during the early s in the fjords and inland seas of the Chilean Northwest Patagonia.

Phylogeny, biogeography, and species boundaries within the Alexandrium minutum group. The geographic range and bloom frequency of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and other members of the A. minutum group have been increasing over the past few by: The geographic range and bloom frequency of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and other members of the A.

minutum group have been increasing over the past few decades. Some of these species are responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks throughout the by: The multiannual dynamic of the cyst-forming and toxic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum was studied over a time scale of about years by a paleoecological approach based on ancient DNA.

The overall perspective is that the biogeography of toxicAlexandrium spp. in the study region is not that of a single, widespread, homogeneous population, but rather is comprised of several sub-populations, each with its own physiological characteristics and history.

Two scenarios are considered with respect to this regional by:   The “Atama complex”, which consists of Alexandrium tamarense, A. fundyense, and A. catenella, is one of the most important groups within the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium. Information of Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium book biogeography of the Atama complex is Cited by: Phylogeny of Alexandrium inferred from ITS sequences based on maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI).

Pyrodinium bahamense was used as an outgroup. Branch lengths were drawn to scale, with the scale bar Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium book the number of nt substitutions per by: A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-symbiotic bacterium (AM1V30T) was isolated from the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum AL1V.

On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain AM1V30T was most closely related ( % similarity) to the type strain of Hoeflea marina, which belongs to the family Phyllobacteriaceae within the order Rhizobiales of the class Cited Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium book Biology of toxic algae: A study of species of the genus Chrysochromulina (Prymnesiophyceae) and Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften - Dr.

Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium book. nat. - Am Fachbereich 2 (Biologie/Chemie) der Universität Bremen Vorgelegt von Uwe John Bremen, April The geographic range and bloom frequency of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and other members of the A.

minutum group have been increasing over the past few decades. Some of these species are responsible for paralytic shellfish. Aim Ostreopsis is a benthic and epiphytic dinoflagellate producing potent toxins widespread in tropical and warm temperate coastal areas world‐wide.

We tested the hypothesis that as it is benthic, it would show distinct biogeographical patterns in comparison with planktonic species. Here, we analyse sequence variability in ribosomal DNA markers to Phylogeny and biogeography of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium book the first Cited by:   The toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim is one of three species that comprise the “minutum” species complex.

This complex is notable due to its role in the etiology of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Recent increases in PSP incidence and the geographic expansion of toxin-producing Alexandrium dinoflagellates have prompted the intensive Cited by:   The variability of cellular toxin content in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense isolated from Hiroshima Bay was analyzed under a variety of culture conditions.

Growth and toxicity were represented as a function of light (80, 90,and μmol m –2 s –1), temperature (12, 17 and 22°C), salinity (13, 25, 29, 33 Cited by: This is the first report to explore the fine‐scale diversity, population genetic structure, and biogeography of a typical planktonic microbe in Japanese and Korean coastal waterCited by: Introduction.

Alexandrium is a genus of dinoflagellates. It contains some of the dinoflagellate species most harmful to humans, because it produces toxic harmful algal blooms (HAB) that cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in humans. (1) There are about 30 species of Alexandrium that form a clade, Class: Dinophyceae.

On the basis of morphological evidence, the species involved in South American Pacific coast harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been traditionally recognized as Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae). However, these observations have not been confirmed using evidence based on genomic sequence by: 9.

A review of the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium occurring in Brazilian coastal waters is presented based on both published information and new data. Seven Alexandrium species have been recorded from Brazil so far: Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium fraterculus, Alexandrium gaardnerae, Alexandrium kutnerae, Alexandrium tamiyavanichi, Alexandrium tamutum, and Alexandrium Cited by: 2.

Alexandrium catenella (Whedon and Kofoid) Balech, b Species Overview: Alexandrium catenella is an armoured, marine, planktonic is associated with toxic PSP blooms in cold water coastal regions.

Taxonomical Description: A chain-forming species, A. catenella typically occurs in characteristic short chains of 2, 4 or 8 cells (Figs. 1,5). Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of phytoplankton that are ubiquitous in marine and fresh waters.

About dinoflagellate species have been described 1,2, most of which are photosynthetic Cited by: 9. Dissertation: Phylogeny & Biogeography of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Smith College Northampton, MA B.A.

summa cum laude, with highest honors in Biology, Thesis Advisor: Paulette M. Peckol Honors Thesis: Physiological Responses of the Coral Porites asteroides and its Algal. The dinoflagellate proteins appear to share a common ancestor with the cyanobacterial homologs, but were acquired independently by each lineage prior to the evolution of saxitoxin synthesis.

Another A. tamarense Group IV protein (Contig ) falls in an unsupported position sister to an actinobacterium outside of this clade (fig. 3 A).Cited by: This paper aims to demonstrate the biodiversity of the symbiotic bacteria associated with toxic dinoflagellate A.

tamarense using the culture-indepen- dent high-throughput pyrosequencing method, as well as the phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences of the symbiotic cultivable bacteria strains isolated from toxic Alexander by: Alexandrium minutum Halim, Species Overview: Alexandrium minutum is an armoured, marine, planktonic is a widely distributed species associated with toxic PSP blooms in coastal regions.

Taxonomical Description: Cells of A. minutum are small, nearly spherical to ellipsoidal, somewhat dorsoventrally flattened and occassionally longer than wide. The book begins with a general introduction and a taxonomic description of the dinoflagellates both to acquaint those unfamiliar with this group of organisms and to set the tone for the rest of the volume.

It then addresses the following topics: cell biology (cell cortex, nuclear structure, cell cycle and mitosis, sexual reproduction, cysts and unusual inclusions). Lilly EL, Halanych KM, Anderson DM. Phylogeny, biogeography, and species boundaries within the Alexandrium minutum group.

Harmful Algae. ; – Lilly EL, Halaynch KM, Anderson DM. Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae) J Phycol. ; –Cited by: Colin, S. and Dam, H. Latitudinal differentiation in the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp.

on the feeding and reproduction of populations of the copepod Acartia l Algae. 1: 2 22 23 24 Abstract 25 The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium is one of the major harmful algal bloom 26 (HAB) genera with respect to the diversity, magnitude and consequences of blooms.

The 27 ability of Alexandrium to colonize multiple habitats and to persist over large regions 28 through time is testimony to the adaptability and resilience of this group of species. GARCÈS, E. & HOPPENRATH, M. (): Ultrastructure of the intracellular parasite Parvilucifera sinerae (Alveolata, Myzozoa) infecting the marine toxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae).

Harmful Algae Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans.

They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs) events around the world, causing Cited by: 4. Vila M, Garces E, Maso M, Camp J, Is the distribution of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella expanding along the NW Mediterranean coast.

Marine Ecology Progress Series. Yoshida M, Ogata T, Van Thuoc C, Matsuoka K, Fukuyo Y, Hoi N C, Kodama M, The first finding of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in Vietnam. Alexandrium tamarense is a species of dinoflagellates known to produce saxitoxin, a neurotoxin which causes the human illness clinically known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).

Multiple species of phytoplankton are known to produce saxitoxin, including at least 10 other species from the genus : Dinophyceae. 1. Introduction [2] Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense are a common feature during the late spring and summer months in the Gulf of Maine (GOM).

These blooms pose a serious human health threat due to the accumulation of neurotoxins in shellfish that feed on the algal cells, resulting in a potentially fatal illness known as paralytic shellfish Cited by:   The presence of neurotoxic species within the genus Alexandrium along the U.S.

coastline has raised concern of potential poisoning through the consumption of contaminated seafood. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) detected in shellfish provide evidence that these harmful events have increased in frequency and severity along the California coast during the past 25 Cited by: Dinoflagellate evolution has been summarized into five principal organizational types: prorocentroid, dinophysoid, gonyaulacoid, peridinioid, and gymnodinoid.

The transitions of marine species into fresh water have been infrequent events during the diversification of dinoflagellates and in most cases have not occurred recently, possibly as late (unranked): SAR.

The competitive dynamics of toxic and non-toxic ribotypes of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in Scottish waters.

PhD thesis. The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium (Halim) in New Zealand coastal waters: comparative morphology, toxicity and molecular genetics. ().Author: Klaire Neale. Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning.

In addition, certain freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxic compound, with the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible being recently by: About this book.

Language: English. Marine Benthic Dinoflagellates presents the first summary of our knowledge of benthic dinoflagellate species. Dinoflagellates are important primary producers and symbionts, but, at the same time, also consumers and parasites.

Non-toxic and toxic subclones obtained from a toxic clonal culture of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae): Toxicity and molecular biological feature.

Harmful Algae (). Novel dinoflagellate clock-related genes identified through microarray analysis. (). Sinceblooms of Alexandrium catenella pdf with pdf shellfish poisoning have been repeatedly reported for Thau Lagoon (French Mediterranean coast).

Based on data obtained for rRNA gene markers, it has been suggested that the strains involved could be closely related to the Japanese temperate Asian ribotype of the temperate Asian clade.

In Cited by: Other articles where Alexandrium is discussed: algae: Annotated classification: in the class Dinophyceae; includes Alexandrium, Ceratium, Dinophysis, Gonyaulax.Previous ebook have suggested that ebook specific community of bacteria coexists within the phycosphere of marine dinoflagellates.

In order to better understand the dinoflagellate-bacteria relationships, a fosmid clone library was constructed from the metagenome DNA and analyzed. Some of the fosmid clones were end-sequenced. A total of fosmid clones with insert .